The nude figure is a tradition in Western art , and has been used to express ideals of male and female beauty and other human qualities. It was a central preoccupation of Ancient Greek art , and after a semi-dormant period in the Middle Ages returned to a central position in Western art with the Renaissance. Athletes, dancers, and warriors are depicted to express human energy and life, and nudes in various poses may express basic or complex emotions such as pathos. Unclothed figures often also play a part in other types of art, such as history painting , including allegorical and religious art , portraiture , or the decorative arts. Nude female figures called Venus figurines are found in the art of the Upper Palaeolithic , and in historical times, similar images represent fertility deities. Other significant non-Western traditions of depicting nudes come from India , and Japan, but the nude does not form an important ct of Chinese art. Temple sculptures and cave paintings, some very explicit, are part of the Hindu tradition of the value of sexuality, and as in many warm climates partial or complete nudity was common in everyday life.
Individuals may intentionally violate norms regarding nudity; those without power may use nudity as a form of protest, and those with power may impose nakedness on others as a form of punishment. The history of nudity involves social attitudes to nakedness of the human body in different cultures in history. The use of clothing is one of the changes that mark the end of the Neolithic and the beginning of civilization.
The dissipation of body heat remains the most widely accepted evolutionary explanation for the loss of body hair in early members of the genus homothe surviving member of which is modern humans. This change in environment also resulted in a change in diet, from largely vegetarian to hunting.
Pursuing game on the savanna also increased the need for regulation of body heat. Some of these changes are thought to be the result of sexual selection, which was first proposed by Darwin in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. By selecting more hairless mates, humans accelerated changes initiated by natural selection. Sexual selection may also account for the remaining human hair in the pubic area and armpits, which are sites for pheromones, while hair on the head continued to provide protection from the sun.
A divergent explanation of humans' relative hairlessness holds that ecroparasites such as ticks residing in fur became problematic as humans became hunters living in larger groups with a "home base". Nakedness would also make the lack of parasites apparent to prospective mates.
The last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees was only partially bipedal, often using their front legs for locomotion. Other primate mothers do not need to carry their young because there is fur for them to cling to, but the loss of fur encouraged full bipedalism, allowing the mothers to carry their babies with one or both hands.
The combination of hairlessness and upright posture may also explain the enlargement of the female breasts as a sexual signal. With the loss of fur, darker, high-melanin skin evolved as a protection from ultraviolet radiation damage.
As humans migrated outside of the tropics, varying degrees of depigmentation evolved in order to permit UVB-induced synthesis of previtamin D 3. The wearing of clothing is most likely a behavioral adaptation arising from the need for protection from the elements, including the sun for depigmented human populations and cold temperatures as humans migrated to colder regions.
According to a study published in Molecular Biology and Evolutionestimates of the origins of clothing are based upon a genetic analysis indicating that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at some point in time between 83, years ago andyears ago; this information suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa prior to their migration to colder climates.
The complex garments needed for survival in extreme cold would have required invention of the tools for turning animal skins into clothes: scrapers for cleaning and smoothing, fine stone knives for cutting and bone needles for stitching. In ancient Mesopotamia, most people owned a single item of clothing, and being naked meant being at the bottom of the social scale, lacking in dignity and status. Although the genitals of adults were generally covered, nakedness in ancient Egypt was not a violation of any social norm, but more often a convention indicating wealth; those that could afford to do so covered more.
Slaves and laborers were nude or wore loincloths. Only women of the upper classes wore kalasirisa dress of loose draped or translucent linen which came from just above or below the breasts to the ankles. Children went without clothing until pubertyat about age These later styles are often shown in film and TV as representing ancient Egypt in all periods. Male nudity was celebrated in ancient Greece as in no culture before or since.
They considered embarrassment at having to disrobe for sports a sign of barbarism. While depictions of nude women were erotic in nature, there was no attribution of impropriety as would be the case for such images in later Western culture. However, the passive images reflected the unequal status of women in society compared to the athletic and heroic images of naked men.
The toga was essential to announce the status and rank of male citizens at Rome. Cicero endorsed Ennius' words. Clothing used in the Middle East, which loosely envelopes the entire body, changed little for centuries.
In part, this consistency arises from the fact that such clothing is well-suited for the climate protecting the body from dust storms while also allowing cooling by evaporation. In all three religions, modesty generally prevails in public, with clothing covering all parts of the body of a sexual nature.
Early Christians generally inherited the norms of dress from Jewish traditions. However, the Adamites were an obscure Christian sect in North Africa originating in the second century who worshiped in the nude, professing to have regained the innocence of Adam.
For men, clothing covers the area from the waist to the knees. For women, clothing covers the area from the neck to the ankles and also covers the hair. The practice known as veiling of women in public predates Islam in PersiaSyriaand Anatolia. Originally, veiling applied only to the wives of Muhammad ; however, veiling was adopted by all upper-class women after his death and became a symbol of Muslim identity.
In stories written in China as early as the fourth century BCE, nudity is presented as an affront to human dignityreflecting the belief that "humanness" in Chinese society is not innate, but is earned by correct behavior. However, nakedness could also be used by an individual to express contempt for others in their presence. In other stories, the nudity of women, emanating the power of yincould nullify the yang of aggressive forces.
The practice continues at a dwindling number of hot springs konyoku outside of urban areas. Their nakedness was not shocking, since women farmers often worked bare-breasted during the summer. The late fourth century CE was a period of both of Christian conversion and standardization of church teachings, in particular on matters of sex.
Sex outside marriage with a respectable woman injured third parties; her husband, father, and male relatives. Fornication with an unattached woman, likely a prostitute, courtesan or slave, was a lesser sin since it had no male victims, which in a patriarchal society might mean no victim at all. The period between the ancient and modern world-approximately to CE-saw an increasingly stratified society in Europe. At the beginning of the period, everyone other that the upper classes lived in close quarters and did not have the modern sensitivity to private nudity, but slept and bathed together naked with innocence rather than shame.
Later in the period, with the emergence of a middle class, clothing in the form of fashion was a significant indicator of classand thus its lack became a greater source of embarrassment.
Until the beginning of the eighth century, Christians were baptized naked to represent that they emerged from baptism without sin. Inbreasts were associated with nourishment and loving care, but byartistic representations of the breast were either erotic or medical.
In the medieval period, Islamic norms became more patriarchal, and very concerned with the chastity of women before marriage and fidelity afterward. Women were not only veiled, but segregated from society, with no contact with men not of close kinship, the presence of whom defined the difference between public and private spaces. While Christians were mainly concerned about mixed-gender bathing, which was not uncommon, Islam prohibited nudity for women in the company of non-Muslim women.
The association of nakedness with shame and anxiety became ambivalent during the Renaissance. The rediscovered art and writings of ancient Greece offered an alternative tradition of nudity as symbolic of innocence and purity which could be understood in terms of the state of man " before the fall ".
Subsequently, norms and behaviors surrounding nudity in life and in works of art diverged during the modern history of individual societies.
Due to concerns about the spread of disease, many European public bath houses closed in the 16th century. The age of colonialism was marked by frequent encounters between Christian and Muslim cultures and indigenous peoples of the tropics see belowleading to the stereotype of the "naked savage". In England during the 17th to 19th centuries, the clothing of the poor by Christian charity did not extend to those confined to "madhouses" such as Bethlem Royal Hospitalwhere the inmates were often kept naked and treated harshly.
The Victorian Era is often considered to be entirely restrictive of nudity. However, throughout the United Kingdom in the 19th century, workers in coal mines were naked due to the heat and the narrow tunnels that would catch on clothing. Men and boys worked fully naked, while women and girls usually employed as " hurriers " would generally only strip to the waist in some locations, they were fully naked as well. Testimony before a Parliamentary labour commission revealed that working naked in confined spaces made "sexual vices" a "common occurrence".
Public swimming pools in the U. Civic leaders had not intended pools to be used for recreation, but for health and sporting activities, which were male only. Initially, working class men and boys swam in the nude, as had previously been customary in lakes and rivers.
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Inan article in The New York Times noted an increase in American tolerance for nudity, both at home and in public, approaching that of Europe. However, some traditional nudists at the time decried the trend as encouraging sexual exhibitionism and voyeurism and threatening the viability of private nudist clubs.
In tropical regions worldwide complete or near nudity was common for both men and women before contact with Western cultures or Islam. Some contemporary societies, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and the Amazon rainforestmaintain their traditional norms, going about their everyday activities either nude or partially nude. Some developing nations have revived precolonial practices. Indigenous woman in German East Africaearly 20th century. Fijian girl The locks of hair falling on her right shoulder show that she is unmarried.
When she weds they will be cut. The report asserted that children have a natural curiosity about their own bodies and the bodies of others that ought to be addressed in an age-appropriate manner.
According to the report:.
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The report recommended that parents learn what is normal in regard to nudity and sexuality at each stage of a child's development and refrain from overreacting to their children's nudity-related behaviors unless there are signs of a problem e.
It is noted that modern psychology generally agrees that children can benefit from an open environment where the bodies of others their own age of both sexes are not a mystery. However, there is less agreement regarding children and adults being nude.
While some doctors have taken the view that some exposure of children to adult nudity particularly parental nudity may be healthy, others-notably Benjamin Spock -disagreed. Spock's view was later attributed to the lingering effect of Freudianism on the medical profession.
In their study on the effects of social nudity on children, Smith and Sparks concluded that "the viewing of the unclothed body, far from being destructive to the psyche, seems to be either benign or to actually provide positive benefits to the individuals involved. They noted that by ages five to six, children begin to develop a sense of modesty, and recommended to parents who desire to be sensitive to their children's wishes that they respect a child's modesty from that age onwards.
In a review of the literature, Paul Okami concluded that there was no reliable evidence linking exposure to parental nudity to any negative effect. Inpsychologist Barbara Bonner recommended against nudity in the home if children exhibit sexual play of a type that is considered problematic. Recreational swim in the Greenbrier RiverWest Virginia A nude family at Lake Senftenberg in Germany s. France, Norway, the Netherlands and the United States show a broad range of openness toward nudity and sexuality as indicated by childhood experiences and sex education practices.
The Culture Minister defended the book's being available for parents, and supported libraries that were under attack. A series of sex education videos from Norwayintended for year olds, includes explicit information and images of reproduction, anatomy, and the changes that are normal with the approach of puberty.
Rather than diagrams or photos, the videos are shot in a locker room with live nude people of all ages. The presenter, a physician, is relaxed about close examination and touching of relevant body parts, including genitals. While the videos note that the age of consent in Norway is 16, abstinence is not emphasized. As ofhowever, 37 U. Studies show that early and complete sex education does not increase the likelihood of becoming sexually active, but leads to better health outcomes overall.
Young children often play outdoors or in public wading pools nude. In a survey of predominantly white middle-class college students in the United States, only 9.
Many were accidental walking in on someone and were more likely to be remembered as negative by women. Only 4. High and low context cultures were defined by Edward T. The behaviors and norms of a high context culture depend upon shared implicit intuitions that operate within a social situation, while in a low context culture behavior is more dependent upon explicit communications.
Germans are extremely low in cultural context. They are characterized by individualism, alienation, estrangement from other people, little body contact, low sensitivity to nonverbal cues, and segmentation of time and space.
By contrast, the French, in their personal lives are relatively high context: they interact within closely knit groups, are sensitive to nonverbal cues, and engage in relatively high amounts of body contact. To maintain public propriety on a nude beach, German naturists avoided touching themselves and others and avoid any adornments or behaviors that would call attention to the body. French naturists, on the other hand, were more likely than Germans to wear make-up and jewelry and to touch others as they would while dressed.
Societies in continental Europe conceive of privacy as protecting a right to respect and personal dignity. In America, the right to privacy is oriented toward values of liberty, especially in one's home. While Europeans maintain their dignity, even while naked where others may see them, Americans see public nakedness as a surrender of "any reasonable expectation of privacy ".
Such cultural differences may make some laws and behaviors of other societies seem incomprehensible. In Western cultures, shame can result from not living up to the ideals of society with regard to physical appearance. Historically, such shame has affected women more than men. With regard to their naked bodies, the result is a tendency towards self-criticism by women, while men are less concerned by the evaluation of others. In much of the world, the modesty of women is a matter not only of social custom but of the legal definition of indecent exposure.
In the United States, the exposure of female nipples is a criminal offense in many states and is not usually allowed in public. The " topfreedom " movement promotes equal rights for women to be naked above the waist in public on the same basis that would apply to men in the same circumstances. Breastfeeding in public is forbidden in some jurisdictionsnot regulated in others, and protected as a legal right in public and the workplace in still others.
Where public breastfeeding is a legal right, some mothers may be reluctant to breastfeed  and some people may object to the practice. In some situations, nudity is forced on a person. For example, imposed nudity full or partial can be part of a corporal punishment or as humiliationespecially when administered in public. For example, instudents at a girls' school in the north-east Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh were forced to undress as a form of punishment, police say.
Although not as common as corporal punishmentit is not unusual for stripping to be used as a form of punishment in Indian schools. Nazis used forced nudity to attempt to humiliate inmates in concentration camps.
This practice was depicted in the film Schindler's List InAbu Ghraib prison in Baghdad Iraq gained international notoriety for accounts of torture and abuses by members of the United States Army Reserve during the post-invasion period. Photographic images were circulated that showed the posing of prisoners naked, sometimes bound, and being intimidated and otherwise humiliated, resulting in widespread condemnation of the abuse.
A strip search is the removal of some or all of a person's clothing to insure that they do not have weapons or contraband. Such searches are generally done when an individual is imprisoned after an arrest, and is justified by the need to maintain order in the facility, not as punishment for a crime. Since regulation of everyday public behavior is more often a matter of social convention than written law, some jurisdictions may have no specific law against nudity in public.
This was the case inwhen three young men who had been skinny-dipping outside Brattleboro, Vermont decided to go into town to see what would happen if they disrobed there. They were not arrested, and the following two summers saw a number of incidents of public nakedness until an ordinance banning nudity was passed. In the 21st century United Statesthe legal definition of "full nudity" is exposure of the genitals.
Where the law has been challenged by asserting that nudity by itself in not lewd or disorderly, laws have been amended to specify indecent exposure, usually of the genitals but not always of the breast. Public indecency in generally a misdemeanorbut may become a felony upon repeated offense or always if done in the presence of a minor. In the United Kingdom, nudity may not be used to "harass, alarm or distress" according to the Public Order Act of Most naturists comply with the law by being nude only where others cannot see them.
His claim was ultimately rejected. The brief, sudden exposure of parts of the body normally hidden from public view has a long tradition, taking several forms, which may or may not prompt legal action.
Shame is one of the moral emotions often associated with nudity. While guilt is the emotion experienced in response to a particular wrong action, shame is a more general and long-lasting self-assessment.
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However, shame is often negative as the response to perceived failures to live up to unrealistic expectations. The shame regarding nudity is one of the classic examples of the emotion, yet rather than being a positive motivator, it is considered unhealthy, standing in the way of developing a positive self-image.
The moral ambiguity of nudity is reflected in its many meanings, often expressed in the metaphors used to describe cultural values, both positive and negative. One of the first-but now obsolete-meanings of nude in the 16th century was "mere, plain, open, explicit" reflected in the modern metaphors "the naked truth", "the bare facts". Naturists often speak of their nakedness in terms of a return to the innocence and simplicity of childhood. The term naturism is based upon nakedness as being connected to nature in a positive way; which includes egalitarianismthat all humans are alike in their nakedness.
Nudity also represents freedom; the liberation of the body is associated with sexual liberation, although many naturists tend to downplay this connection. In some forms of group psychotherapynudity has been used to promote open interaction and communication. Religious persons who reject the world as it is including all possessions may practice nudism, or use nakedness as a protest against an unjust world. Many of the negative associations are the inverse of positive ones.
If nudity is truth, nakedness may be an invasion of privacy or the exposure of uncomfortable truths, a source of anxiety. The strong connection of nudity to sex produces shame when naked in contexts where sexuality is deemed inappropriate.
Rather than being natural, nakedness is associated with savagery, poverty, criminality, and death. To be deprived of clothes is punishment; humiliating and degrading. Confronted with this ambiguity, some individuals seek to resolve it by working toward greater acceptance of nudity for themselves and others.
The majority of naturists go through stages during which they gradually learn a new set of values regarding the human body. Nudity is used to draw public and attention to a cause, sometimes including the promotion of public nudity itself. Persons who practice and advocate personal and social nudity distinguish between sexual and non-sexual nudity. Studies of naturism find that its practitioners adopt behaviors and norms that suppress the sexual responses while practicing social nudity.
However, some naturists do not maintain this non-sexual atmosphere. In a article in " Off Our Backs ", Nina Silver presents an account of mainstream sexual culture's intrusion into some American naturist groups. Nudist resorts may attract misogynists or pedophiles who are not always dealt with properly, and some resorts may cater to " swingers " or have sexually provocative events to generate revenue or attract members.
The author of a study of nudism in Australia stated that many people "link the words nudity and sex as readily as they would link knife and fork". Yet nudity also involves issues that that are not directly related to sexual activity or attraction, but other cultural meanings of nakedness. However, these other meanings are complex and ambiguous given social norms and moral judgements concerning what is normal, deviant or even criminal behavior.
While similar terms may be used loosely to refer to everyday activity, these feelings and behaviors are a indicative of a mental disorder only if they interfere with normal functioning or well-being, or involve causing discomfort or alarm to others. Much rarer is gymnophobiaan abnormal and persistent fear of nudity. Norms related to nudity are associated with norms regarding personal freedomhuman sexualityand gender roleswhich vary widely among modern societies. Situations where nudity is accepted vary.
Some people practice nudism within the confines of " nudist camps " or clothing-optional resorts, while naturists seek more open acceptance of nudity in everyday life and in public spaces. Bathing for cleanliness and recreation is a human universal found worldwide, and the communal use of bathing facilities has been maintained in many cultures from varying traditional sources.
When there is complete nudity, the facilities are often segregated by sex, but not always. The saunaoriginating from Finlandis attended nude in its source country as well as in most Scandinavian countries and in the German-speaking countries of Europe. For example, the Friedrichsbad in Baden-Baden has designated times when mixed nude bathing is permitted.
The German sauna culture also became popular in neighbouring countries such as SwitzerlandBelgiumthe Netherlands and Luxembourg. In Koreabathhouses are known as Jjimjilbang. Such facilities may include mixed-sex sauna areas where clothing is worn, but bathing areas are gender segregated; nudity is required in those areas. In addition to the health benefits, a woman wrote in - u-j-s.com suggesting the social benefits for women and girls having real life experience of seeing the variety of real female bodies-even more naked than at a beach-as a counterbalance to the unrealistic nudity seen in popular media.
In Russiapublic banyas are clothing-optional and are usually gender-segregated. In India, priests of the Digambara "skyclad" sect of Jainism and some Hindu Sadhus refrain from wearing clothing to symbolize their rejection of the material world. Most retain their own religion, which includes elements of Buddhism and Animism ; as well as traditional clothing, a loincloth for men and a skirt for women.
In sub-Saharan Africafull nudity or nudity below the waist is the norm among some ethnic and family groups-including some Burkinabese and Nilo-Saharan e. Nuba and Surma people -in daily life or on particular occasions.
For example, at highly attended stick-fighting tournaments, well-exposed young men use the occasion to catch the eye of prospective brides. In Brazilthe Yawalapiti -an indigenous Xingu tribe in the Amazon Basin -practice a funeral ritual known as Quarup to celebrate life, death and rebirth. The ritual involves the presentation of all young girls who have begun menstruating since the last Quarup and whose time has come to choose a partner. Nudity in Asia is limited to very isolated locations or private resorts.
Historically, certain facilities associated with activities that require partial or complete nakedness such as bathing or changing clothes, for example have limited access to certain members of the public. These normal activities are guided by generally accepted norms, the first of which is that the facilities are most often segregated by gender; however, this may not be the case in all cultures.
Changing rooms may be provided in stores, workplaces, or sports facilities to allow people to change their clothing. Some changing rooms have individual cubicles or stalls affording varying degrees of privacy. Locker rooms and communal showers associated with sports generally lacked any individual space, thus providing minimal physical privacy.
For much of the 20th century, the norm in locker rooms had been for men to undress completely without embarrassment. That norm has changed; in the 21st century, men typically wear towels or other garments in the locker room most of the time and avoid any interaction with others while naked. This shift is the result of changes in social norms regarding masculinity and how maleness is publicly expressed; also, open male nudity has become associated with homosexuality.
By the s, communal showers in American schools had become "uncomfortable", not only because students were accustomed to more privacy at home, but because young people became more self-conscious based upon the comparison to mass media images of perfect bodies. The change also addresses issues of transgender usage and family use when one parent accompanies children of differing gender. In Denmark, secondary school students are now avoiding showering after gym classes.
In interviews, students cited the lack of privacy, fears of being judged by idealized standards, and the possibility of being photographed while naked. Attitudes toward public nudity vary depending on culture, time, location, and context. There are particular contexts in which nudity is tolerated, accepted, or even encouraged in public spaces.
In Europe, such contexts include nude beacheswithin some intentional communities such as naturist resorts or clubs and at special events. While some European countries such as Germanyfor example are rather tolerant of public nudity, other nations disfavor or punish public nudity. In the United States inthe city council of San FranciscoCalifornia banned public nudity in the inner-city area.
This move was met by harsh resistance because the city was known for its liberal culture and had previously tolerated public nudity.
Naturism or nudism is a subculture advocating and defending private and public nudity as part of a simple, natural lifestyle. Nudism originated in opposition to the industrialization of Europe in the late 19th century. Naturists reject contemporary standards of modesty that discourage personal, family and social nudity.
They instead seek to create a social environment where individuals feel comfortable being in the company of nude people and being seen nude, either by other naturists or by the general public.
Nudism spawned a proselytizing literature in the s and s. Nudism's other common name, naturism, signals its core contention that the naked body is natural and that modesty and shame are cultural impositions with deleterious effects on psychological, sexual, and social well-being. Early nudism was in dialogue with sexology and feminism in a critique of society and its future.
The social sciences until the middle of the 20th century often studied public nakedness, including naturism, in the context of deviance or criminality. A nude beach, sometimes called a clothing-optional or free beach, is a beach where users are at liberty to be nude. Such beaches are usually on public lands. Nude beaches may be official legally sanctionedunofficial tolerated by residents and law enforcementor illegal but so isolated as to escape enforcement.
Distinct from the nude artworks created, sessions where artists, both amateur and professional, work from live models are a social situation where nudity has a long tradition.
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The role of the model both as part of visual art education and in the creation of finished works has evolved since antiquity in Western societies and worldwide wherever western cultural practices in the visual arts have been adopted.
At modern universities, art schools, and community groups " art model " is a job, one requirement of which is to pose "undraped" and motionless for minutes, hours with breaks or days as the artwork requires.
Photography of groups of nude people in public places has been done around the world with or without official cooperation. The gathering itself is proposed as performance art, while the resulting images become statements based upon the identities of people invited to participate by posing, and the location selected; urban, scenic landscapes, or sites of historical significance.
The photographers state a variety of artistic, cultural, and political reasons for their work, while those being photographed may be professional models or unpaid volunteers attracted to the project for personal reasons.
In a picture-making civilization, pictorial conventions continually reaffirm what is natural in human appearance, which is part of socialization. In Western societies, the contexts for depictions of nudity include informationart and pornography. Any ambiguous image not easily fitting into one of these categories may be misinterpreted, leading to disputes.
Limits of the depiction of nudity are based upon the legal definitions of indecency and obscenity. Inthe Supreme Court in Miller v. California established the three-tiered Miller test to determine what was obscene and thus not protected versus what was merely erotic and thus protected by the First Amendment. Depictions of child nudity or of children with nude adults appear in works of art in various cultures and historical periods. These attitudes have changed over time and have become increasingly frowned upon, especially in the case of photography.
In recent years, snapshots taken by parents of their nude infant or toddler children were challenged as child pornography. The nude human figure has been one of subjects of art from its Paleolithic beginnings, and a major preoccupation of Western art since the ancient Greeks. In "The Nude: a Study in Ideal Form", Lord Kenneth Clark states that to be naked is to be deprived of clothes, and implies embarrassment and shame, while a nude, as a work of art, has no such connotations.
Nudity may be used as a part of live performances, such as dance, theater, performance art and nude body painting. Danceas a sequence of human movement, may be ceremonialsocial or one of the performing arts. Partial or complete nudity is a feature of ceremonial dances in some tropical countries. However, some claim that modern practices may be used to promote "ethnic tourism" rather than to revive authentic traditions. A well-known performance that included nudity was the Broadway musical Hair in Models posing on stage nude was a feature of tableaux vivants at London's Windmill Theatre and New York's Ziegfeld Follies in the early 20th century.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. State of wearing no clothing. For the preference for nudity in non-sexualized social settings, see Naturism. For other uses, see Birthday suit disambiguation. For other uses, see Nude disambiguation and Naked disambiguation.
See also: Modesty. Main article: History of nudity. Main article: Human evolution. Main article: History of clothing and textiles. Indigenous peoples in tropical climates.
Four Masai tribesmen, c. See also: Puberty. Cultural differences in childhood nudity. Fountain in Israel between and Bathing in the center of BerlinGermany See also: Naturism in Germany and Naturism in France. See also: Pantsing. Main article: Strip search. Main articles: Indecent exposure and Clothing laws by country. See also: Nudity in religion. Main article: Nudity and protest. Main article: Nudity and sexuality.
See also: Sexual attraction and Physical attractiveness. See also: Sauna. Further information: Changing room and Communal shower. See also: Nude recreation and Issues in social nudity. Main article: Naturism. See also: Christian naturism. Main article: Nude beach. See also: Nude recreation and Nude swimming. Main article: Depictions of nudity. See also: Nudity in film and Nudity in American television.
Main article: Nude art. See also: Striptease and Sex show. Human sexuality portal Nudity portal. It is noteworthy that today there is usually no separate bathing times for men and women. Nakedness of men and women in the sauna has been accepted for a long time and that has created a positive overall social climate. Self-regulation - the rare exceptions confirm the rule - determines the behavior of the bathers. Pampered is the attempt [ Merriam-Webster's Dictionary.
Retrieved 13 November Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 21 December Retrieved 27 October Fordham University. Retrieved 9 November Historical Archives - Male Nude Swimming.
Retrieved 8 November American Psychological Association. Retrieved 11 November Law Insider. Retrieved 31 October Merriam-Webster's Legal Dictionary. Retrieved 12 November BBC Online. Retrieved 18 July However using nudity to harass, alarm or distress others is an offence against the Public Order Act of Slate Magazine. Winnipeg Free Press - via www. - u-j-s.com.
Retrieved 19 March Japan Guide. Omo Valley Tribal Tours. Spiegel Online. Retrieved 13 September Subcultures and Sociology. Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 23 March Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 19 December Egypt: the world of the pharaohs.
Bancroft, John Sexual Development in Childhood. Indiana University Press.
Barcan, Ruth a. Nudity: A Cultural Anatomy. Berg Publishers. Barcan, Ruth In Patricia Whelehan; Anne Bolin eds. The International Encyclopedia of Human Sexuality. Berger, John Ways of Seeing.
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